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Don't waste your money. I have found this game very good on iphone and haven't had any problems at all. You don't have to buy any chips at all, if you lose it all, you play in a free games until you build up your chips.

It is a great game especially for free. This isn't strictly gambling. This creates huge interest in the brand and inevitably people get frustrated with the free game, as it's full of crazies going all in on every hand.

Hey, it's free right? Players then gravitate to the real money game site at… pokerstars. Clever marketing that doesn't strictly advertise gambling, thus gets around all sorts of pesky laws.

I wouldnt pay for it or the extra chips , but its not too hard to get a little kitty going…. Keep your kitty high, and you actually get quite a lot of free chips per day.

Dont knock it till you try it folks try it if you dont like it delete it …. I think it is OK to have two negative comments on this "deal". Even if it is not gambling … it is an easy entry to gambling.

All the kids who download all free apps … some will purchase chips and get hooked. But this discussion … the backlink and the downloads help the dev to get some people who are not that clever and will purchase "too many" chips.

It is NOT a bargain … as explained above … the business model of this kind of app works always with a paid app which then gets discounted.

As this page is for bargains it should not be promoted here. Just watch and see how long it will be free. It is interesting to see for me how many positive reviews this "deal" gets … so far this community was really good in discovering scams, rip offs and hidden advertising.

I would not expect it to be free for very long at all. I personally dont like the structure with the multi table tourneys but thats beside the point and not the greatest poker around will never be the same playing against real life people.

At no single point does one HAVE to spend money for chips, and just because theres people out there with more money than brains or just plain sick in the need does not preclude this from being a bargain.

I dont understand the neg votes at all - just as someone needs to do research before posting "bargains", voters also need to quantify their votes with some as well.

All trademarks are owned by their respective owners. Run it, and read the instructions. The second program will be automatically loaded.

As soon as the game is ready to run, you will be prompted to hit K for keyboard control. If you are using a joystick, just hit any other key; but if you're using the keyboard, just hit the K key and you're on your way to doing life-and-death battle with ambulatory aliens!

All the instructions, including which keys to use, are de- tailed in the instruction screen of the first program. Some details you should be aware of: Once you have accumulated five hundred points a siren will go off and you will meet another wave of aliens they're shaped differ- ently.

For every five hundred points you accumu- late after that, you will hear the same siren go off and yet another wave appear.

All aliens that you miss will damage your city and once the damage is substantial the city will blow up in flames and the game will end.

Good luck and have lots of fun! If you prefer not to type in the program and would like to have it ready to run, send a blank cassette and a self-ad- dressed mailer with five dollars to: Thousands ol Com- modore 64 owners have "tuzzy" color on theii TV, Most hove interference lines crowding out theii great graphics.

Many have bought expensive monitors or new TVs, and often even that hasn't helped. We can solve them! Just plug into the monitor plug, and the color and contrast immediately im- prove, Dramatically, Crisp letters.

A new 2 prong cable, with the Color Sharp- ener built in. Better than the cable Commodore built by a lot.

Also hooks your "Old 64" tothel Don't waste your money on those cheap looking, clear plastic, static filled covers. Please send me the following: This month we continue our series on disk files by discussing the rel- ative file type.

As we stated last month, data in sequential files is accessed one item after another; hence the name "sequential.

In a sequential file, in order to get to a place in the file all data previous to the item you desire must be read in.

Contrary to this, in a relative file, you may jump directly to a particular place in the file. This place is called a record.

Each record is a miniature sequential file that may range up to characters. When a relative file is created, the user must specify how long each record is, or its record length.

The computer will then set aside this amount of space for each record. There may be up to records in a single file. All these numbers add up to the fact that the only limit on the size of a relative file is the amount of data that may be stored on a disk.

Here is a diagram of a typical relative file. In this file, each record is 10 characters long and con- tains a name. There are a total of 7 records.

This represents a data termin- ator. It is usually a carriage return. These are pre- sent so that only the pertinent data is read in, and the trailing characters in each record are ignored.

Suppose that we were curious as to what was stored in record number 7. If this were a sequential file, we would have to read in all of the preceding data to get to item number 7.

As you are probably beginning to realize, rela- tive files can make life a whole lot easier, and they allow greater versatility in data manipulation.

At this time, we'll bet you're wondering how to apply this in your programs. Well, we'll not keep you in suspense any longer.

Relative files must be created a bit differently from sequential file types. The fonnat of this OPEN statement is as follows: The format for this is as follows: OPEN— Tells the computer to create a file with the following information.

In this case the device number is the 8, the disk drive. For other purposes, numbers 0, 1, and 15 have been reserved.

This is what the file will be called in the di- rectory. The ",L," is omitted when accessing a previ- ously created relative file.

This is also only speci- fied when initially creating a relative file. Once a relative file is created, a slightly easier format is used to OPEN it again.

For example, to access an existing relative file called DEMO, you might use: Once a relative file has been created, you may write data into it or read from it.

Unlike sequential files, you do not have to specify whether you will be reading or writing when it is opened. Use the following formula to determine the values for lo and hi where R is equal to the record number.

For example, let's say we wanted to look at data starting at the first character in record number 6; we would use the following statement: You may not read or write past the end of a record into the next record.

If you are simply expanding the file, you may ignore this "error" message. As a result, the information being written to the record is truncated so that it fits within limits.

Commands include assemble, disassemble, registers, memory, transfer, compare, plus many more. Someday every CBM 64 owner will need a monitor such as this.

Cartridge and Manual — S This is the finest word processor available. All features are easy to use and understand, With tabs, etc.

The dictionary is user customizable to any technical words you may use. Furthermore, all paragraphs can be printed in writing and everyday letters are a snap.

The user defines the fields and then can add, change, delete and search for any category he wants. This "cartridge" system has all the features of professional systems at onlv a fraction of the cost.

Extra functions include mailmerge, embedded footnotes, extra user defined character sets, plus a complete label program.

This is a complete word processor program which allows you to create and format professional looking documents. Features include; page numbering, margin control, full screen editing and footnotes.

II allows you to create, store, and modify text easi- ly. Store text on disk or cassette to be printed or modified later!

Impact dot matrix, bi-directional, 80 CPS. Includes a powerful mail merge. Block swilches are on outside of cover!

Ex- pands total memory to 33K 33, bytes. Memory block switches are on outside of cover! Expands total memory lo 41K 41, bytes.

Memory block switches are an outside cover! Allow 14 days I lor delivery, 2 to 7 days for phone orders, 1 day exorass mail!

Canada , orders must be in U. Just plug in this board and you immediately convert your VIC computer to 40 or 80 columns! Comes in an attractive molded case with instructions!

High resolution bit image x dot matrix underlining back spacing, left and right margin settings, true lower decenders, with super and sub scripts.

Prints standard, italic, block graphics, special characters, plus 24 of user definable characters and much morel! Prints single sheets, continuous feed and roll paper!

This is Red Hot Efficiency!!! Other printer Interfaces are available at computer stores! Money Order or Personal Check Allow 14 days for delivery.

Kevelson The Commodore 64 has been selling like hotcakes and shows no signs of slacking off. Along with the computer, copious quantities of the Commodore disk drive have been sold as well.

In fact, the number of users who have bought drives along with the com- puter actually took Commodore by surprise and at one point created shortage.

Furthermore, dealers' shelves have been overflowing with high-quality, sophisticated software for the 64, making tape storage impractical at best.

In view of the proliferation of disk drives, it is rather surprising that very little has been said about the inner workings of the machine.

Commo- dore releases little or no information and the manual supplied with the drive has achieved a certain notor- iety for poor documentation.

Speaking from exper- ience, the manual presently supplied with the is 34 AHOY! In the interest of filling this information vacuum, at least to some extent, we will take you on a guided tour of the disk drive.

At the very least, your curiosity about what is inside that mysterious box should be somewhat satisfied. The more adventurous of you will also be able to change the disk device number for multiple drive use and perform basic cleaning chores.

Before we begin, a word of caution. Do not go tearing into your drive at the first sign of trouble or when you first read this article. Most of the activities we will describe here will, at the very least, void your warranty.

There are some delicate adjustments in the drive mechanism which should not be disttuised without proper training and tools.

Proper head align- ment probably requires a special alignment disk and test equipment which most users do not have. Unless you are reasonably adept at things mechanical, we suggest leaving this sort of tinkering to a qualified serviceman.

Disk drive with cover removed. To begin with, we have to establish a common reference point. As you might expect, the front of the drive is the end into which you insert your disk, the back is opposite.

Left and right will always be referenced with the front of the drive facing you. You will need a number one Philips head screwdriver.

That is the kind that has a crossed tip rather than a single flat blade. Make sure the blade is sharp and in good condition. A worn Philips head screwdriver invariably wears out the screw head, causing no end of grief.

A long-nosed pliers or a long pair of tweezers will come in handy for picking up the screws which will fall to the bottom of the case.

If you feel you are super careful, you can dis- pense with the latter. And come up and introduce yourself sometime.

I'd love to meet someone who does not drop an occasional screw! A word of cau- tion here: For cleaning the head, a small bottle of iso-propyl alcohol 91 percent should be obtained at your local drug store.

A four-ounce bottle should cost about a dollar. Do not use rubbing alcohol, as this contains additives which will leave a deposit on the head sur- face.

Some good-quality cotton swabs and a can of compressed air or a squeeze blower finish off the list. Do not go blowing into your drive, as human breath contains moisture and other corrosives which the inside of a disk drive is better off without.

We will start by turning off all power to the drive and computer. Disconnect all cables from the back of the drive and turn it over, placing it on a firm, smooth surface.

A sheet of cardboard, not cor- rugated, makes a good protective layer to prevent scratches. At each comer is a rather deeply recessed Philips head screw.

You may have to apply con- siderable pressure to these screws the first time you take them out. The screws are too short to come out of the case, so just leave them in the holes.

Hold the drive case together and turn it back over. Some of the screws may fall out at this point. Lift off the top half of the case, poke out the remainder of the screws, and put them aside.

Long board found in older units. At this point the metal housing will be visible Photo 1. This is held in place by two screws on the left side of the housing item 1, Photo I.

The right side of the housing is held in place by a pair of dimples in the sheet metal. Before removing the housing, carefully examine the wires from the green power on indicator light emitting diode in the front right comer.

If the wires are routed through the small cutout towards the front item 2, Photo I you will have to carefully swing the housing toward the left to remove the push on connector.

The wire should then be slipped through the cutout. If the wire is routed through the rear cutout on the left side item 3, Photo I , the housing can be lifted straight off.

At this point the main circuit board will be exposed. If your board looks like Photo 2, you have one of the older long boards. If it looks like Photo three, you have one of the newer short boards.

Do not be concerned about this. The boards are fiinctionally identical. Commodore is simply making use of some new large scale integrated circuit components to replace a large number of older small-scale integrated PHOTO 3: Short board showing hardware rearrange- ment, utilizing large-scale integrated circuits.

The chip that does this is item 7, Photo 3. Referring to Photos 2 or 3, item 1 is a microprocessor. This is actually the same device used in the VlC, Atari and Apple n computers.

It is also very similar to the microprocessor in the Conunodore It is items 1, 2 and 3 which make the an "intelligent" peripheral.

This means that the DOS does not have to be loaded into memory every time you turn your computer on. Incidentally, if you have a disk drive, the ROM which will have to be replaced to upgrade it to a is item 2.

These han- dle all the data transmission between the computer and the disk drive and between the components of the drive itself. Don't go pulling any of these chips out of their sockets.

Although modem semiconductors are quite sturdy, there is still some danger from static electrici- ty during handling.

As such, the chips are much safer in their sockets. We have now reached the point where the drive device number can be changed.

Refer to Photo 4, item 1 on the long board. You will notice four semicircular pads on the left side toward the back of the board.

These are set up in pairs with a thin printed circuit trace connecting them. If the trace be- tween the pads labeled 1 is broken, the device number will be changed to nine.

If the trace between pads 2 is broken, the device number is changed to If both traces are broken, the device number will be 1 1.

The original device number can always be restored by simply soldering across the broken trace. Refer to Photo 5 for the short board. In this case the circular pads have been moved to the center of the board and they are no longer numbered.

Up to this point, all we have accomplished is ac- tually sanctioned by Commodore as the procedure is briefly described on page 40 of the user's manual.

As such these operations should not con- stitute a violation of the warranty. We will now ven- ture into forbidden territory, so proceed with caution.

You will notice a number of connectors around the periphery of the circuit board which will have to be removed.

These are all slip-on connectors and should not pre- sent any problems. Take careful note of the orienta- tion of each connector to avoid reversing them dur- ing reassembly.

This should not be a problem in any event, as the twist of the wires tends to hold the connectors in their original orientation.

To ftirther simplify matters, each connector has a number one molded into one side of the nylon housing. This cor- responds to the number one on the printed circuit board next to the connecting pins, although some of these markings may have been left off on the short boards.

A total of six connectors will have to be removed. Working with the long board Photo 2 , the power on LED connector item CI at the front left hand comer will have been taken care of when the metal housing was removed.

On the short board Photo 3 , this connector is now the rearmost on the left side of the board. Be particularly careftil when removing the black head connector item C2 located at the right side toward the front of the long board Photo 2 and in the front left hand comer of the short board Photo 3.

Note that one of the pins on the black con- nector is missing, leaving only four out of five connections. The four remaining connectors are at the same location on both boards.

The main power connector item C3 is at the back right hand comer of the board. The drive mechanism interface connectors items C4, C5, C6 are at the center left hand side in a group.

There are a total of seven screws holding the main circuit board down to the main chassis. Three are along the top left side of the board at the front, center and back.

Two more will be found on the top of the board at the front right hand comer and at the top center position at the back. AU these locations have been marked as "SI" in Photo 2.

The last two screws are on the right hand side not on top towards the back of the main chassis. These actually screw into the heat sink at the back left hand comer of the board.

The heat sink is the black metal contraption with the rectangular fins pointing straight up. Once all seven screws and six connectors have been removed, the main circuit board can be removed and set aside.

At this point the entire drive mechanism will be exposed as shown in Photo 6. The main power transformer item 1 is the large square device towards the back.

The round motor item 2 located at the rear left hand comer of the drive mechanism subchassis is what spins the disk during read and write operations.

The disk remains stationary at all other times. Opening the drive door will lift the pressure pad arm assembly off the head, preventing possible damage to the head if the pressure pad arm should accidentally be released while cleaning.

The pressure pad assembly item 3, Photo 6 is shown lifted out of the way in Photo 7. This head is encased in glass and should be treated with great respect.

CareftiUy wipe the head with a fresh cotton swab dipped in isopropyl alcohol. Use the compressed air or squeeze blower to clean out any cotton strands.

Avoid touching the head with any hard objects. At this point, the drive should be reassembled by reversing the order of the steps above.

The following notes are for advanced tinkerers only! For ftirther disassembly, the entire drive chassis should be removed from the case. There are a total of six screws, located on the left and right sides of the chassis, which have to be removed.

The drive mechanism subchassis is held in place with four screws located on the right and left sides of the main chassis, labeled S2 in Photo 6, The pencil in Photo 9, which shows the bottom of the drive mechanism, points out an earlier mechanical fix to the drive mechanism.

In this case the drive pulley with the radial strobe markings was a press fit on the drive shaft.

This screw was missing in early production models of the disk drive. A slipped pulley can be recognized by a loud scraping noise made by its hitting the metal chassis.

This problem can be easily fixed by using a drop of cyanoacrilate crazy glue on the shaft when pushing the pulley back on.

The pulley should be nearly all the way on the shaft before adding the glue, as it sets very fast. The drive door will have to be closed and the top of the spindle on a firm support when this repair is performed.

It con- cerns the drive hub pressure assembly which holds the disk against the spinning drive hub. This assembly is supposed to have slippage, but it oc- curs at an incorrect point.

The assembly consists of a spring sandwiched between stainless steel thrust washers. This spring tends to wear away the washers causing an intermittent grinding, squealing, or howling noise.

The design of this assembly seems to be at fault in that the individual com- ponents do not work well together.

Lubrication of these components seems to cure the problem, at least for the short term. The use of any kind of lubricant in the drive area is in general not recommended, and should be approached with extreme caution.

We suggest that a small drop of AHOY! Bottom of drive mechanism. A measured amount of oil can thus be transferred into position.

The components to be lubricated can be reached by removing the small "C-ring" item 1, Photo 7 at the center of the door arm assembly.

The drive mechanism door item 2, Photo 7 will have to be removed to gain access to the components.

The door can be moved only a limited amount because of the restriction caused by the wires to the red drive activity LED in the front panel.

Use caution when performing this operation, as the two springs in the mechanism tend to cause the parts to fly apart.

We will close this discussion with a brief description of the head positioning mechanism. The stepper motor item 1, Photo 9 is capable of rotating in 1.

This is converted to linear motion by a drive assembly consisting of a drive pulley, an idler pulley, and a stainless steel band connecting the two with the head assembly.

The drive pulley appears to be a press fit on the stepper motor shaft. It is thus possible that slippage occuring at this point may 38 AHOY!

This conclusion is specula- tion of our part, as we do not have sufficient infor- mation regarding the problem at this time.

Many of you have probably wondered about the loud chattering noise which occurs when the drive formats a disk. This is caused by the stepper motor pulling the head to the outermost position on the disk.

A protrusion on the drive pulley is brought against a fixed stop item 1 , Photo 8 at which time the stepper motor hits this stop several times to set the head in a known starting position.

This is what causes the loud chattering noise. The quieter burp- ing noise which you may hear on occasion is caused by the stepper motor moving the head to a different track on the drive surface.

This tends to happen more frequently as the disk is filled, because of the way the DOS allocates disk space.

The center tracks are filled first, moving radially outward. Thus considerable head movement occurs when the disk is nearly full, as the head shuttles between an inner and outer track.

If a read or write error should occur, the stepper motor will pull the head out against the stop, causing the loud chattering noise.

This is done to reset the head position. Depending on the nature of the error, the drive may perform this operation several times before giving up and reporting an error.

This chattering noise will occur with commercial software that uses "bad sectoring" to copy protect the disks.

This is the practice where an unreadable sector is deliberately written on the disk surface at a known location. Since these bad sectors cannot be reproduced during a copy operation, they are used as a check for copied disks.

This practice may ac- tually be a contributing cause to many head align- ment problems. The continuous chattering caused during attempts to copy these disks puts con- siderable strain on the drive components.

It is conceivable that the repeated impact of the pulley against the stop can cause the drive pulley to slip on the shaft. Some elementary precautions will extend the useful life of the disk drive.

Maintain adequate clearance above the drive to allow dissipation of heat. Two or three inches is generally sufficient.

Avoid smoky or dusty atmospheres. Smoke or dust particles can play havoc with the disk surface. We have noted a minor bug in the disk operating system.

This occurs if a disk is formatted im- mediately after a disk error occurs and results in an improperly formatted disk.

Retype these lines, then save the corrected version. END [1] is the name you gave voice 1. Normal speed is To turn on music within the main program, enter: To turn off music; SYS Now here's the loader for the program: This way you can load the interrupt machine code and the music without the editor.

The loader program also lowers the top of memory for you; if the top of memory weren't lowered, the variables would over- write your music, destroying it.

Altogether you lose around 18K for the privilege of having this massive amount of music in the program at once.

Most programs will still fit in the 20K left, but if for some reason your program doesn't fit you'll have to wait till next time when I'll discuss how to relocate the music and ML to a more convenient and economical location.

In the meantime, keep ex- perimenting and have fun. Try typing in a sample song— I think you'll enjoy it! Next, type DSR and you will be able to enter attack-decay and sustain-release.

On return- ing to the normal editor screen, you can then enter the music note by note till the end. Before entering the music you should be aware of one thing: When the computer asks for the new duration, enter 0.

Now you should return to the change menu. Enter X to get back to editor. Now you can enter the music for Voice 1. After finishing the music for Voice 1 , follow the same procedure for Voice 2.

Now type X for exit and you will see Voice 2 in the upper right corner of the editor screen. Taking the sub- ject of writing on a computer one step at a time, the authors guide the reader through the jargon jungle that has been inflicted on the world by techies who, like the alchemists and sorcerers of old, have attempted to create their own secret language.

Writing in the Computer Age tells you how to choose a computer and a word processing program which will fulfill your own needs. Best of all, even the com- pletely non-technical person will benefit from this book.

In addition to being written in a clear, straightforward manner, authors Fluegelman and Hewes have added another very nice touch.

They describe in detail how they used their computers to write the book, communicate with one another via telephone and modem, and finally to trans- mit the edited manuscript to the typesetter.

The book is worth ev- ery penny you pay for it, and whether you are on the brink of going electronic, or have already taken the plunge, you will be glad you bought it.

Carta Blanche and Diners Club. Among the first books written in non- technical language, the McWilliams duo taken singly or together are worth reading.

He approaches the subject with a kind of zany humor, which tends to humanize it, and that is good, if his cutesiness doesn't become too cloying for your taste after awhile.

The author also provides a fairly comprehensive buying guide, which, despite the fact that such an effort becomes ob- solete before a book even goes to press, is still of value, because it offers practical information that can still be used.

It is not only for the poten- tial buyer and the computer nov- ice, but for the "computer wid- ow," and everyone in creation who has ever been bored stiff at some gathering by one or more computerniks speaking in elec- tronic tongues and preaching the gospel of the chip and the byte.

Although Crichton goes over some of the territory that has been covered by others in ex- plaining the anatomy of the com- puter and how to buy one, he does it with intelligence, and in thoroughly human terms.

Conse- quently, by the time you finish the section in which he explains some of the more obtuse comput- er jargon, you know that when you encounter it again, you will not be intimidated or put off.

We understand that you have a background in physical therapy. How did you make the jump to computers and game design? Before I became interested in computers I was teaching indirect methods for physical therapists.

Before that I was photographer in Boston for about ten years. Then I moved to Berkeley, where I got very interested in what the active elements were in the Tibetan language and how those elements in- fluenced the language; how you extract active cultural elements and translate them into language.

That led me into the study of hypnosis and therapy. I studied with a couple of guys in Santa Cruz for a while who were interested in linguistics— how people derive meaning out of their experiences, how they represent it in language, and how language shapes experience and how experience shapes language.

Then 1 wanted to formalize my thinking. The com- puter seemed like a real good way of doing it. I studied subsets of natural language, machine language, BASIC, Fortran, and the other languages that were structured on the computer.

I wanted to make some sort of analogy that would translate to the human experience. It served as a very good model, a simplistic one, but it led me into more pra;ise ways of thinking about what experience is and at what level you can change people's experience.

I was interested in games, in emotional reactions to games, and the differences between a reader and a protagonist in novels.

I was interested in how a com- puter structures the environment for someone to react with. That's really the direction that I'm most in- terested in right now.

Who is the character you're representing? Does your character have attributes in the same way you have attributes?

What things do you expect the player as the player to remember, what do you expect the player as a character to remember?

One of your company spokesmen referred to the psychological "hooks" that you like to in- troduce into your games. I'll tell you a little about hooks.

I was interested in the player and the projection of the player through the character in any kind of game, whether it's an adventure game or a skill-and-action game.

One of the things I've experimented with is giving the pro- jection of the player some volition in addition to merely being controUal by the joystick.

For example, if you take a three second pause while playing Alley Cat, the cat kind of takes off on his own. He starts meowing and moving around by himself.

You have to constantly be aware. Through the pauses you become aware that the cat has a per- sonality of his own, rather than you feeling that you have an inanimate thing that you have to animate through some force of will.

It's a cooperative effort. Obviously the proportions of that can change. We're experimenting with a teamwork approach. I'm very interested in the whole 42 AHOY!

In order to be really suc- cessful in games, you have to engage players on all levels of expertise. The way that games have tradi- tionally done this is to present a learning curve.

When you first enter the game you say, "This is trivial, no problem at all. Unfortunately, what happens with a linear set-up like this, each game becomes repetitive.

You have to work through the problems that you've solved already. So the question is, how do you get the game to engage you at the level you want to play?

I don't want to level-orient games at all. I think that's an artificial distinction. When you play Monopoly, you never play it on levels.

The initial stages of the game change every time you set up the game board. Exactly, and they change on the basis of who is playing against you.

So, how do you make a level- less computergame that is engaging, that has some way of rewarding the better player and yet brings along the player that isn't that experienced?

The way we've done it is to divide the game into episodes. Sentinel is rated according to how quickly the episode takes place, what the number of hits was versus the number of shots fired, what the basic tactics are, how much movement there was of the joystick, at what level did the ship come in toward you, what speed was their rapidity of fire, what other obstacles were there?

There are many other factors built into the equation. Based on these factors, we change the kind of objects that come toward you, what kinds of things they do in reference to how quick they are, what their patterns are, how many engagements you have.

Every minute that you play, the game makes intrinsic judgements that gear the game to level of play. In another game, we present a firing pattem that shoots one bolt at you, then backs off and circles around you.

As you build more and more in- telligence into the attacker, there will be patterns that he goes through based on what your reactions are.

The game notices if you try to center in a particular way and it will call up a pattem based on what your strategy has been thus far.

You can use that then to stay a step ahead? And that's an intuitive decision; it's not something explicit. You can bluff the computer. If you're rated on the basis of every minute, how can you plan a strategy that will fool the computer into shooting where your character is not.

This is where I think that computergames begin to diverge from videogames: And that is your answer to the problem of maintaining the interest of players of unequal ability or experience?

Each game you play is completely different. This is the first step in deter- mining how to make the computer react to you as an individual. You said before that the response is in- tuitive on the part of the player, not explicit.

Could you expand on that? When you're talking about the building blocks of games, you have to engage people aurally and visually.

I don't care if people intellectually under- stand what's going on or not. The most effective learning in anything that we do comes on a subliminal basis.

Every time you hear that warning siren, a certain kind of emotional response is evoked. The designer must take all sorts of elements into ac- count and really think about them.

The designer must ask himself: Is there some kind of subliminal learning and response matrix being set up as you're designing the game all the way through?

If the game looks good, that's fine. That'll engage some people who are visually oriented. However, if the game doesn't have playability, it will ultimately fail, and it will dis- appoint the people that it impressed in the first place.

In fact, it wUl disappoint them more than if it didn't promise them as much in the fu-st place. You use humor to elicit an emotional response in the player.

What other elements are employed? Well, for one thing, I feel that to the greatest extent possible, the control of the game should be in- tuitively obvious.

The game should not have a cumbersome overlay. For instance, if, in order to A light-hearted game based on a classic of tragic pro- portions: Shamus 2 is the sequel to Shamus, the best-selling shoot- 'em-up that dispatches a futuristic detective on a room-by-room search for the mysterious Shadow.

This time a map has been provided. If you pull the joystick back with the button pressed, you should notice what happens and say, "Okay, yeah, that's what should happen.

The Commodore 64 employs Atari-type joysticks. Do you wish you could design to more complex controllers, such as the Intellivision controllers?

I don't know if I like that type of design because, while it is a nice package and it gives you multiple unctions, it does require that one hand has to make discriminations that might not be made quickly enough in real time.

In the coin-op Discs of Tron, there is one control that directs where your discs are to go and another one that controls the player.

That's a very nicely designed game. It has taken multiple controllers and made them integral to one another. You're saying then that overly-complex controls can interrupt the player's emotional involve- ment in a game?

You wouldn't turn on the lights in the middle of a movie, because that is going to reorient the moviegoer to the audience around him. In game design, you have to look at everything that is going on in very precise detail and understand what part of that process is important to the game, and what part interrupts.

If you keep on forcing people to do something that they don't want to do, the game is not going to be successful. Oh, it may be marginally successful, but there will be complaints about it, some not fully verbalized.

Complete involvement is obviously very important to you. Whether the game is skill-and-action or whatever, the object is to create an experience that is so totally engrossing that it provides a way for peo- ple to experience their lives differently.

I'm now designing a game called Enigma. You find yourself on a desert island. You're face down in tlie sand. You don't know who you are or why you're there.

It's a game of discovery. A completely textual game? I'm trying to incorporate a totally interac- tive environment. On the basis of what you do, objects will exist and situations wUl evolve.

Whoever plays the game will have com- pletely different experiences. Will there be any dead-ends? No, not at all. There will be a structure that wiU vector the person toward things to happen, meeting characters and so forth, that lead to a conclusion.

To the same conclusion, ultimately? No, There is a possibility of many conclusions. This is a game of discovery. It is not a puzzle or a riddle that you have to solve in only one way.

Back to the unfortunate wretch in the sand: Say, a shoe salesman from Philadelphia, whether he panics or digs or swims or whatever?

Sure, but I think that the fact that he's labeled a shoe salesman is almost irrelevant. It's the experience of discovering that you're a shoe salesman and the various ways you can do that.

For instance, I could remember that I'm a shoe salesman by someone handing me a note that reads: What is it that is compelling about being a shoe salesman?

Perhaps the fact that you discover who you are is irrelevant to the game. The ex- periences that are presented to that end are the im- portant thing.

The human mind tends to try to create patterns and to inject meaning where there may not be meaning. But with the addition of experience, new information, a different interpretation is possible, a whole new in- terpretation.

So how do you manipulate that creation of meaning, since there is no ultimate resolution? Is there an enormous following for textual adventures?

We're a visually-oriented society. Until we can engage people with language and interpreting language, these games are not going to achieve tremendous popularity.

You have to make certain assumptions about your audience, and the audience that enjoys reading is a relatively small one.

However, it happens to be fairly congruent to the au- dience that has computers, so we're lucky in that sense. But I do feel that it is going to allow us to exploit the maximum power of the computer.

The problem with computer graphics is twofold: I'm more interested in having the game play you than you playing the game. We're calling them Microworlds.

And you have novelists at work on them? In fact we do, but I can't tell you who they are because we haven't signed all of the contracts.

You go this way and someone says, "You can't go that way. It totally stops the ex- perience for me. We're going to have to work with some of those obstructions until we can solve some of the problems: Just putting the computer's power to better use.

We're addressing the problem with our cocktail party game. It has hardly any physical space at all. Rather, you go from person to person. You overhear things, you say certain things and later hear varia- tions of what you said come back.

Characters remember certain things, forget others. The most intricate puzzle is not a Ruble's Cube, it's a person.

And it's a character that changes. When you read bad fiction, the character comes in, he interacts with alot of people, and he goes out ex- actly the way he came in.

When you read a Tolstoy novel, the character is totally different at the end of the novel than when he came in at the beginning. And that's what we're trying to do.

There is no reason why you have to be the same person during a game either. You could have a changeling-type game, where you're a person at one point, you're a dog at another, a bat at another.

Or you could begin the game placid and logical, and by the end you're a crazed murderer. Then your responses would change and so would the responses of the characters you interact with.

If you kick someone you probably can't expect too much help from them. One of the first videogames to attract female players on a wide scale was Pac-Mcm.

Why do you suppose that was, and why do you think women are less involved with video and com- putergames than men.

Lx oking back, you can interpret something in any number of ways. You can find a pattern in Pac-Man that was cosmically introduced or that, syn- chronistically, society was ready for.

You can do anything you want. Once things are done, you can say "Ah yes. The pattern is obvious. I think it was the learning curve. In that game, there's no ambiguity.

It seems like a trivial task, something that is easily done. There's instantly alot of control. It's no big deal.

Whereas in other games, the decision pace may be too fast. Someone who has never been involved in that particular game says, "That game is too fast.

I can't leam it. I don't think you can sexually differentiate other than that women belong to the category of videogame players that have not played alot.

Are computergame sales going the way of the videogame business: The analogy I make is that computergame com- panies are equivalent to the recording artist.

For ex- ample, Elton John is the equivalent of Synapse, rather than a particular programmer. I think people are relying more and more on companies to develop good games, because there is such a proliferation of garbage.

Success really depends on how well you can understand what people want at a par- ticular time. You must be able to an- ticipate where the world is going to be and match it.

And the trick is matching it and leading it to something new. You match a person's expectations and say, "Okay, I got you.

Now let me show you something else. Would you care to speculate on future game technologies such as laserdisc players interfaced with home computers?

It all has to do widi how quickly you can branch, and how many branches you can generate at one time. Until laserdiscs are used as a mass storage medium with much faster processors, there is going to be very limited interaction.

There are prescribed branches, and that's boring. You're committed to a particular course of action. When they play Dragon's Lair, many people don't even know whether they've moved the joystick correctly until they've sunk about twenty five dollars into it.

New styles are beginning to emerge, and they're not "Move the cursor, shoot the dot. We're only now developing brushes. You will beat the dealer if you play Blackjack correctly.

In dozens of foreign countries throughout the world. They haven't changed the rules. Even multiple-deck games pose no problem if you play properly.

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As it stands, less than one percent play well enough to make money. The display screen depicts the top view of a Blackjack table. You interact with the program just as you would an actual game.

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Complete documentation is included which tells you everything you need to know to become an expert strategy player. When you buy software from SOTA, we do our utmost to make sure you get your money's worth.

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With the player guessing first, computer and play- er take turns in guessing letters which the other's word might con- tain.

The object is obviously to correctly guess the computer's word before it guesses yours.

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Extra functions include mailmerge, embedded footnotes, extra user defined character sets, plus a complete label program. This is a complete word processor program which allows you to create and format professional looking documents.

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Kevelson The Commodore 64 has been selling like hotcakes and shows no signs of slacking off. Along with the computer, copious quantities of the Commodore disk drive have been sold as well.

In fact, the number of users who have bought drives along with the com- puter actually took Commodore by surprise and at one point created shortage.

Furthermore, dealers' shelves have been overflowing with high-quality, sophisticated software for the 64, making tape storage impractical at best.

In view of the proliferation of disk drives, it is rather surprising that very little has been said about the inner workings of the machine.

Commo- dore releases little or no information and the manual supplied with the drive has achieved a certain notor- iety for poor documentation.

Speaking from exper- ience, the manual presently supplied with the is 34 AHOY! In the interest of filling this information vacuum, at least to some extent, we will take you on a guided tour of the disk drive.

At the very least, your curiosity about what is inside that mysterious box should be somewhat satisfied. The more adventurous of you will also be able to change the disk device number for multiple drive use and perform basic cleaning chores.

Before we begin, a word of caution. Do not go tearing into your drive at the first sign of trouble or when you first read this article.

Most of the activities we will describe here will, at the very least, void your warranty. There are some delicate adjustments in the drive mechanism which should not be disttuised without proper training and tools.

Proper head align- ment probably requires a special alignment disk and test equipment which most users do not have. Unless you are reasonably adept at things mechanical, we suggest leaving this sort of tinkering to a qualified serviceman.

Disk drive with cover removed. To begin with, we have to establish a common reference point. As you might expect, the front of the drive is the end into which you insert your disk, the back is opposite.

Left and right will always be referenced with the front of the drive facing you. You will need a number one Philips head screwdriver. That is the kind that has a crossed tip rather than a single flat blade.

Make sure the blade is sharp and in good condition. A worn Philips head screwdriver invariably wears out the screw head, causing no end of grief.

A long-nosed pliers or a long pair of tweezers will come in handy for picking up the screws which will fall to the bottom of the case.

If you feel you are super careful, you can dis- pense with the latter. And come up and introduce yourself sometime.

I'd love to meet someone who does not drop an occasional screw! A word of cau- tion here: For cleaning the head, a small bottle of iso-propyl alcohol 91 percent should be obtained at your local drug store.

A four-ounce bottle should cost about a dollar. Do not use rubbing alcohol, as this contains additives which will leave a deposit on the head sur- face.

Some good-quality cotton swabs and a can of compressed air or a squeeze blower finish off the list. Do not go blowing into your drive, as human breath contains moisture and other corrosives which the inside of a disk drive is better off without.

We will start by turning off all power to the drive and computer. Disconnect all cables from the back of the drive and turn it over, placing it on a firm, smooth surface.

A sheet of cardboard, not cor- rugated, makes a good protective layer to prevent scratches. At each comer is a rather deeply recessed Philips head screw.

You may have to apply con- siderable pressure to these screws the first time you take them out. The screws are too short to come out of the case, so just leave them in the holes.

Hold the drive case together and turn it back over. Some of the screws may fall out at this point. Lift off the top half of the case, poke out the remainder of the screws, and put them aside.

Long board found in older units. At this point the metal housing will be visible Photo 1. This is held in place by two screws on the left side of the housing item 1, Photo I.

The right side of the housing is held in place by a pair of dimples in the sheet metal. Before removing the housing, carefully examine the wires from the green power on indicator light emitting diode in the front right comer.

If the wires are routed through the small cutout towards the front item 2, Photo I you will have to carefully swing the housing toward the left to remove the push on connector.

The wire should then be slipped through the cutout. If the wire is routed through the rear cutout on the left side item 3, Photo I , the housing can be lifted straight off.

At this point the main circuit board will be exposed. If your board looks like Photo 2, you have one of the older long boards.

If it looks like Photo three, you have one of the newer short boards. Do not be concerned about this. The boards are fiinctionally identical.

Commodore is simply making use of some new large scale integrated circuit components to replace a large number of older small-scale integrated PHOTO 3: Short board showing hardware rearrange- ment, utilizing large-scale integrated circuits.

The chip that does this is item 7, Photo 3. Referring to Photos 2 or 3, item 1 is a microprocessor. This is actually the same device used in the VlC, Atari and Apple n computers.

It is also very similar to the microprocessor in the Conunodore It is items 1, 2 and 3 which make the an "intelligent" peripheral. This means that the DOS does not have to be loaded into memory every time you turn your computer on.

Incidentally, if you have a disk drive, the ROM which will have to be replaced to upgrade it to a is item 2.

These han- dle all the data transmission between the computer and the disk drive and between the components of the drive itself.

Don't go pulling any of these chips out of their sockets. Although modem semiconductors are quite sturdy, there is still some danger from static electrici- ty during handling.

As such, the chips are much safer in their sockets. We have now reached the point where the drive device number can be changed. Refer to Photo 4, item 1 on the long board.

You will notice four semicircular pads on the left side toward the back of the board. These are set up in pairs with a thin printed circuit trace connecting them.

If the trace be- tween the pads labeled 1 is broken, the device number will be changed to nine. If the trace between pads 2 is broken, the device number is changed to If both traces are broken, the device number will be 1 1.

The original device number can always be restored by simply soldering across the broken trace. Refer to Photo 5 for the short board.

In this case the circular pads have been moved to the center of the board and they are no longer numbered.

Up to this point, all we have accomplished is ac- tually sanctioned by Commodore as the procedure is briefly described on page 40 of the user's manual.

As such these operations should not con- stitute a violation of the warranty. We will now ven- ture into forbidden territory, so proceed with caution.

You will notice a number of connectors around the periphery of the circuit board which will have to be removed. These are all slip-on connectors and should not pre- sent any problems.

Take careful note of the orienta- tion of each connector to avoid reversing them dur- ing reassembly. This should not be a problem in any event, as the twist of the wires tends to hold the connectors in their original orientation.

To ftirther simplify matters, each connector has a number one molded into one side of the nylon housing. This cor- responds to the number one on the printed circuit board next to the connecting pins, although some of these markings may have been left off on the short boards.

A total of six connectors will have to be removed. Working with the long board Photo 2 , the power on LED connector item CI at the front left hand comer will have been taken care of when the metal housing was removed.

On the short board Photo 3 , this connector is now the rearmost on the left side of the board. Be particularly careftil when removing the black head connector item C2 located at the right side toward the front of the long board Photo 2 and in the front left hand comer of the short board Photo 3.

Note that one of the pins on the black con- nector is missing, leaving only four out of five connections.

The four remaining connectors are at the same location on both boards. The main power connector item C3 is at the back right hand comer of the board.

The drive mechanism interface connectors items C4, C5, C6 are at the center left hand side in a group. There are a total of seven screws holding the main circuit board down to the main chassis.

Three are along the top left side of the board at the front, center and back. Two more will be found on the top of the board at the front right hand comer and at the top center position at the back.

AU these locations have been marked as "SI" in Photo 2. The last two screws are on the right hand side not on top towards the back of the main chassis.

These actually screw into the heat sink at the back left hand comer of the board. The heat sink is the black metal contraption with the rectangular fins pointing straight up.

Once all seven screws and six connectors have been removed, the main circuit board can be removed and set aside. At this point the entire drive mechanism will be exposed as shown in Photo 6.

The main power transformer item 1 is the large square device towards the back. The round motor item 2 located at the rear left hand comer of the drive mechanism subchassis is what spins the disk during read and write operations.

The disk remains stationary at all other times. Opening the drive door will lift the pressure pad arm assembly off the head, preventing possible damage to the head if the pressure pad arm should accidentally be released while cleaning.

The pressure pad assembly item 3, Photo 6 is shown lifted out of the way in Photo 7. This head is encased in glass and should be treated with great respect.

CareftiUy wipe the head with a fresh cotton swab dipped in isopropyl alcohol. Use the compressed air or squeeze blower to clean out any cotton strands.

Avoid touching the head with any hard objects. At this point, the drive should be reassembled by reversing the order of the steps above.

The following notes are for advanced tinkerers only! For ftirther disassembly, the entire drive chassis should be removed from the case.

There are a total of six screws, located on the left and right sides of the chassis, which have to be removed.

The drive mechanism subchassis is held in place with four screws located on the right and left sides of the main chassis, labeled S2 in Photo 6, The pencil in Photo 9, which shows the bottom of the drive mechanism, points out an earlier mechanical fix to the drive mechanism.

In this case the drive pulley with the radial strobe markings was a press fit on the drive shaft. This screw was missing in early production models of the disk drive.

A slipped pulley can be recognized by a loud scraping noise made by its hitting the metal chassis. This problem can be easily fixed by using a drop of cyanoacrilate crazy glue on the shaft when pushing the pulley back on.

The pulley should be nearly all the way on the shaft before adding the glue, as it sets very fast. The drive door will have to be closed and the top of the spindle on a firm support when this repair is performed.

It con- cerns the drive hub pressure assembly which holds the disk against the spinning drive hub. This assembly is supposed to have slippage, but it oc- curs at an incorrect point.

The assembly consists of a spring sandwiched between stainless steel thrust washers. This spring tends to wear away the washers causing an intermittent grinding, squealing, or howling noise.

The design of this assembly seems to be at fault in that the individual com- ponents do not work well together. Lubrication of these components seems to cure the problem, at least for the short term.

The use of any kind of lubricant in the drive area is in general not recommended, and should be approached with extreme caution.

We suggest that a small drop of AHOY! Bottom of drive mechanism. A measured amount of oil can thus be transferred into position. The components to be lubricated can be reached by removing the small "C-ring" item 1, Photo 7 at the center of the door arm assembly.

The drive mechanism door item 2, Photo 7 will have to be removed to gain access to the components. The door can be moved only a limited amount because of the restriction caused by the wires to the red drive activity LED in the front panel.

Use caution when performing this operation, as the two springs in the mechanism tend to cause the parts to fly apart. We will close this discussion with a brief description of the head positioning mechanism.

The stepper motor item 1, Photo 9 is capable of rotating in 1. This is converted to linear motion by a drive assembly consisting of a drive pulley, an idler pulley, and a stainless steel band connecting the two with the head assembly.

The drive pulley appears to be a press fit on the stepper motor shaft. It is thus possible that slippage occuring at this point may 38 AHOY!

This conclusion is specula- tion of our part, as we do not have sufficient infor- mation regarding the problem at this time. Many of you have probably wondered about the loud chattering noise which occurs when the drive formats a disk.

This is caused by the stepper motor pulling the head to the outermost position on the disk. A protrusion on the drive pulley is brought against a fixed stop item 1 , Photo 8 at which time the stepper motor hits this stop several times to set the head in a known starting position.

This is what causes the loud chattering noise. The quieter burp- ing noise which you may hear on occasion is caused by the stepper motor moving the head to a different track on the drive surface.

This tends to happen more frequently as the disk is filled, because of the way the DOS allocates disk space. The center tracks are filled first, moving radially outward.

Thus considerable head movement occurs when the disk is nearly full, as the head shuttles between an inner and outer track.

If a read or write error should occur, the stepper motor will pull the head out against the stop, causing the loud chattering noise.

This is done to reset the head position. Depending on the nature of the error, the drive may perform this operation several times before giving up and reporting an error.

This chattering noise will occur with commercial software that uses "bad sectoring" to copy protect the disks. This is the practice where an unreadable sector is deliberately written on the disk surface at a known location.

Since these bad sectors cannot be reproduced during a copy operation, they are used as a check for copied disks. This practice may ac- tually be a contributing cause to many head align- ment problems.

The continuous chattering caused during attempts to copy these disks puts con- siderable strain on the drive components. It is conceivable that the repeated impact of the pulley against the stop can cause the drive pulley to slip on the shaft.

Some elementary precautions will extend the useful life of the disk drive. Maintain adequate clearance above the drive to allow dissipation of heat.

Two or three inches is generally sufficient. Avoid smoky or dusty atmospheres. Smoke or dust particles can play havoc with the disk surface.

We have noted a minor bug in the disk operating system. This occurs if a disk is formatted im- mediately after a disk error occurs and results in an improperly formatted disk.

Retype these lines, then save the corrected version. END [1] is the name you gave voice 1. Normal speed is To turn on music within the main program, enter: To turn off music; SYS Now here's the loader for the program: This way you can load the interrupt machine code and the music without the editor.

The loader program also lowers the top of memory for you; if the top of memory weren't lowered, the variables would over- write your music, destroying it.

Altogether you lose around 18K for the privilege of having this massive amount of music in the program at once.

Most programs will still fit in the 20K left, but if for some reason your program doesn't fit you'll have to wait till next time when I'll discuss how to relocate the music and ML to a more convenient and economical location.

In the meantime, keep ex- perimenting and have fun. Try typing in a sample song— I think you'll enjoy it! Next, type DSR and you will be able to enter attack-decay and sustain-release.

On return- ing to the normal editor screen, you can then enter the music note by note till the end. Before entering the music you should be aware of one thing: When the computer asks for the new duration, enter 0.

Now you should return to the change menu. Enter X to get back to editor. Now you can enter the music for Voice 1.

After finishing the music for Voice 1 , follow the same procedure for Voice 2. Now type X for exit and you will see Voice 2 in the upper right corner of the editor screen.

Taking the sub- ject of writing on a computer one step at a time, the authors guide the reader through the jargon jungle that has been inflicted on the world by techies who, like the alchemists and sorcerers of old, have attempted to create their own secret language.

Writing in the Computer Age tells you how to choose a computer and a word processing program which will fulfill your own needs. Best of all, even the com- pletely non-technical person will benefit from this book.

In addition to being written in a clear, straightforward manner, authors Fluegelman and Hewes have added another very nice touch.

They describe in detail how they used their computers to write the book, communicate with one another via telephone and modem, and finally to trans- mit the edited manuscript to the typesetter.

The book is worth ev- ery penny you pay for it, and whether you are on the brink of going electronic, or have already taken the plunge, you will be glad you bought it.

Carta Blanche and Diners Club. Among the first books written in non- technical language, the McWilliams duo taken singly or together are worth reading.

He approaches the subject with a kind of zany humor, which tends to humanize it, and that is good, if his cutesiness doesn't become too cloying for your taste after awhile.

The author also provides a fairly comprehensive buying guide, which, despite the fact that such an effort becomes ob- solete before a book even goes to press, is still of value, because it offers practical information that can still be used.

It is not only for the poten- tial buyer and the computer nov- ice, but for the "computer wid- ow," and everyone in creation who has ever been bored stiff at some gathering by one or more computerniks speaking in elec- tronic tongues and preaching the gospel of the chip and the byte.

Although Crichton goes over some of the territory that has been covered by others in ex- plaining the anatomy of the com- puter and how to buy one, he does it with intelligence, and in thoroughly human terms.

Conse- quently, by the time you finish the section in which he explains some of the more obtuse comput- er jargon, you know that when you encounter it again, you will not be intimidated or put off.

We understand that you have a background in physical therapy. How did you make the jump to computers and game design?

Before I became interested in computers I was teaching indirect methods for physical therapists. Before that I was photographer in Boston for about ten years.

Then I moved to Berkeley, where I got very interested in what the active elements were in the Tibetan language and how those elements in- fluenced the language; how you extract active cultural elements and translate them into language.

That led me into the study of hypnosis and therapy. I studied with a couple of guys in Santa Cruz for a while who were interested in linguistics— how people derive meaning out of their experiences, how they represent it in language, and how language shapes experience and how experience shapes language.

Then 1 wanted to formalize my thinking. The com- puter seemed like a real good way of doing it. I studied subsets of natural language, machine language, BASIC, Fortran, and the other languages that were structured on the computer.

I wanted to make some sort of analogy that would translate to the human experience. It served as a very good model, a simplistic one, but it led me into more pra;ise ways of thinking about what experience is and at what level you can change people's experience.

I was interested in games, in emotional reactions to games, and the differences between a reader and a protagonist in novels.

I was interested in how a com- puter structures the environment for someone to react with. That's really the direction that I'm most in- terested in right now.

Who is the character you're representing? Does your character have attributes in the same way you have attributes?

What things do you expect the player as the player to remember, what do you expect the player as a character to remember?

One of your company spokesmen referred to the psychological "hooks" that you like to in- troduce into your games. I'll tell you a little about hooks.

I was interested in the player and the projection of the player through the character in any kind of game, whether it's an adventure game or a skill-and-action game.

One of the things I've experimented with is giving the pro- jection of the player some volition in addition to merely being controUal by the joystick.

For example, if you take a three second pause while playing Alley Cat, the cat kind of takes off on his own. He starts meowing and moving around by himself.

You have to constantly be aware. Through the pauses you become aware that the cat has a per- sonality of his own, rather than you feeling that you have an inanimate thing that you have to animate through some force of will.

It's a cooperative effort. Obviously the proportions of that can change. We're experimenting with a teamwork approach. I'm very interested in the whole 42 AHOY!

In order to be really suc- cessful in games, you have to engage players on all levels of expertise. The way that games have tradi- tionally done this is to present a learning curve.

When you first enter the game you say, "This is trivial, no problem at all. Unfortunately, what happens with a linear set-up like this, each game becomes repetitive.

You have to work through the problems that you've solved already. So the question is, how do you get the game to engage you at the level you want to play?

I don't want to level-orient games at all. I think that's an artificial distinction. When you play Monopoly, you never play it on levels. The initial stages of the game change every time you set up the game board.

Exactly, and they change on the basis of who is playing against you. So, how do you make a level- less computergame that is engaging, that has some way of rewarding the better player and yet brings along the player that isn't that experienced?

The way we've done it is to divide the game into episodes. Sentinel is rated according to how quickly the episode takes place, what the number of hits was versus the number of shots fired, what the basic tactics are, how much movement there was of the joystick, at what level did the ship come in toward you, what speed was their rapidity of fire, what other obstacles were there?

There are many other factors built into the equation. Based on these factors, we change the kind of objects that come toward you, what kinds of things they do in reference to how quick they are, what their patterns are, how many engagements you have.

Every minute that you play, the game makes intrinsic judgements that gear the game to level of play. In another game, we present a firing pattem that shoots one bolt at you, then backs off and circles around you.

As you build more and more in- telligence into the attacker, there will be patterns that he goes through based on what your reactions are. The game notices if you try to center in a particular way and it will call up a pattem based on what your strategy has been thus far.

You can use that then to stay a step ahead? And that's an intuitive decision; it's not something explicit.

You can bluff the computer. If you're rated on the basis of every minute, how can you plan a strategy that will fool the computer into shooting where your character is not.

This is where I think that computergames begin to diverge from videogames: And that is your answer to the problem of maintaining the interest of players of unequal ability or experience?

Each game you play is completely different. This is the first step in deter- mining how to make the computer react to you as an individual.

You said before that the response is in- tuitive on the part of the player, not explicit. Could you expand on that?

When you're talking about the building blocks of games, you have to engage people aurally and visually. I don't care if people intellectually under- stand what's going on or not.

The most effective learning in anything that we do comes on a subliminal basis. Every time you hear that warning siren, a certain kind of emotional response is evoked.

The designer must take all sorts of elements into ac- count and really think about them. The designer must ask himself: Is there some kind of subliminal learning and response matrix being set up as you're designing the game all the way through?

If the game looks good, that's fine. That'll engage some people who are visually oriented. However, if the game doesn't have playability, it will ultimately fail, and it will dis- appoint the people that it impressed in the first place.

In fact, it wUl disappoint them more than if it didn't promise them as much in the fu-st place. You use humor to elicit an emotional response in the player.

What other elements are employed? Well, for one thing, I feel that to the greatest extent possible, the control of the game should be in- tuitively obvious.

The game should not have a cumbersome overlay. For instance, if, in order to A light-hearted game based on a classic of tragic pro- portions: Shamus 2 is the sequel to Shamus, the best-selling shoot- 'em-up that dispatches a futuristic detective on a room-by-room search for the mysterious Shadow.

This time a map has been provided. If you pull the joystick back with the button pressed, you should notice what happens and say, "Okay, yeah, that's what should happen.

The Commodore 64 employs Atari-type joysticks. Do you wish you could design to more complex controllers, such as the Intellivision controllers?

I don't know if I like that type of design because, while it is a nice package and it gives you multiple unctions, it does require that one hand has to make discriminations that might not be made quickly enough in real time.

In the coin-op Discs of Tron, there is one control that directs where your discs are to go and another one that controls the player.

That's a very nicely designed game. It has taken multiple controllers and made them integral to one another.

You're saying then that overly-complex controls can interrupt the player's emotional involve- ment in a game?

You wouldn't turn on the lights in the middle of a movie, because that is going to reorient the moviegoer to the audience around him.

In game design, you have to look at everything that is going on in very precise detail and understand what part of that process is important to the game, and what part interrupts.

If you keep on forcing people to do something that they don't want to do, the game is not going to be successful.

Oh, it may be marginally successful, but there will be complaints about it, some not fully verbalized. Complete involvement is obviously very important to you.

Whether the game is skill-and-action or whatever, the object is to create an experience that is so totally engrossing that it provides a way for peo- ple to experience their lives differently.

I'm now designing a game called Enigma. You find yourself on a desert island. You're face down in tlie sand. You don't know who you are or why you're there.

It's a game of discovery. A completely textual game? I'm trying to incorporate a totally interac- tive environment. On the basis of what you do, objects will exist and situations wUl evolve.

Whoever plays the game will have com- pletely different experiences. Will there be any dead-ends? No, not at all.

There will be a structure that wiU vector the person toward things to happen, meeting characters and so forth, that lead to a conclusion.

To the same conclusion, ultimately? No, There is a possibility of many conclusions. This is a game of discovery. It is not a puzzle or a riddle that you have to solve in only one way.

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In the subject line, please type BBQ. Watch for full details! Muttitt will be on hand, 11 the Langley Central Rotary Club for a new a. Showtimes always available at All auditoriums are THX certified with dolby digital sound.

Colossus also features stadium seating and birthday parties. Better defend your home from our winter storms! Fourteen-year-old lacrosse player Matt Stack will be Ontariobound later this summer.

Stack was the lone Langley player selected to the member B. Making the team is no small feat. Teams representing the Fraser went on their way to the gold When the national championValley, Vancouver, medal.

The elite were then narfloor, but whose actions on it is also wary of Ontario. Georgia Ellenwood is the first Grade 9 student to win the senior girls B.

The combined events meet took place in Abbotsford May Girls from all over the province represented their schools in seven individual events.

Ellenwood won five of the seven events: Adding the remaining two events javelin and shot-put her combined score was 4, Ellenwood is a student at Langley Secondary, and trains with the Langley Mustangs track and field club.

The competition continues at the B. Secondary Schools track and field championships opens at Swangard Stadium today Friday , Jared Heldman is going to be ready to go.

The senior standout from Brookswood Secondary, who has battled a groin injury most of the season, served notice of his multiskills over the weekend, winning the decathlon portion of the provincial prep championships in dominating fashion.

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No cash value, plus taxes and environmental levies. All advertising published in this newspaper is accepted on the premise that the merchandise and services offered are accurately described and willingly sold to buyers at the advertised prices.

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The publishers do not guarantee the insertion of a particular advertisement on a specified date, or at all, although every effort will be made to meet the wishes of the advertisers.

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Spend time with yourself, re-connect spiritually, be charitable. For the next two months, success will depend on your ability to communicate and travel.

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Pursue legal, educational, travel, cultural and love objectives this week and next. They enliven and challenge, succeed and frustrate this week.

A Gemini or Virgo might be involved. Keep an even keel. If your urge to wed and your urge to partner are not represented by the same person, stop.

Early week brings an unexpected change, a lucky, unpredictable, fresh exhilaration in love, partnership, contractual and relocation zones, now to early September.

Tackle chores this week and next. This is a good thing, for the opportunities that face you this month and next are traps in disguise.

This whole area security, kids, real estate, etc. Many secrets will be revealed this week and next mostly this week — be a detective. Be silent, watch and listen.

Your sexual, intimate urges rise to the surface: The anger, impatience and temperamental relations with higherups that have marked your career scene since last October now disappear.

At the same time, a job could end. You could fall in love, especially late this week! If so, stop, think before proceeding. The next two months could be very sexual; an affair is possible.

Anger from others ends! The road will be uneven — rocky, frustrating, exhilarating, successful, joyful, maddening, etc.

Everything is possible, even true love! Focus on endings and new beginnings, on nurturing, home, kids, real estate, retirement, security, Mother Nature, for two weeks.

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